A SHORT HISTORY OF ROHINGYA IN ARAKAN MYANMAR

A Muslim minority, “Natives of Arakan”, who lived in the independent Arakan Kingdom
before
the invasion and annexation by Bamar King Bodawpaya in 1784.
“Rohingya did not come to Burma. But Burma came to Rohingya.”
AMARTYA SEN, Nobel Prize Laureate in Economics
“Muslims of Arakan (Rohingyas) certainly belong to one of the indigenous races of
Burma…. In fact, there is no pure indigenous race in Burma, if they do not belong to
indigenous races of Burma, we also cannot be taken as indigenous races of Burma.”
SAO SHWE THAIKE
The First President of Union of Burma
“The people living in northern Arakan are our national brethren. They are called
Rohingyas.
They are on the same par in the status of nationality with Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Mon,
Rakhine and Shan… They are one ethnic people living within the Union of Burma.”
U NU
The First Prime Minister of Union of Burma September 25, 1954
“In the stone inscription from AD 1442, the kings were found to bear Muslim names.
There is a very high probability that the people who lived in the Mayu region (to the east of
Naaf
River and to the west of Kaladan) were the Rohinjas.”
DR. THAN TUN
Prof. of History at Mandalay University and World’s Authority on Ancient Burma
August 28, 1994
HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES
Restrictions on
Freedom of Nationality
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of Self-Identification
Freedom of Movement
Freedom of Marriage
Freedom of Education
Freedom of Life, Liberty & Security
Freedom of Fair Employment
Subjected to
 Rape
 Torture
 Force-Labour
 Extortion
 Arbitrary Taxation
 Land Confiscation
Source: Irish Centre for Human Rights, “Crimes against Human Western Burma: the
Situation of the Rohingyas”, 2010

1988 ROHINGYA EXTERMINATION BLUEPRINT
Proposed by Col. Thar Kyaw and adopted by the Myanmar Junta’s State Law and Order
Restoration Council (SLORC) in 1988, to exterminate Rohingya

  1. Muslims [Rohingya] are not to be provided with citizenship cards by identifying
    them as insurgents
  2. Reduce the population growth by gradual imposition of restrictions on their
    marriage and by application of all possible methods of oppression and suppression
  3. Strive for the increase in Buddhist population to be more than the number of
    Rohingya by way of establishing Natala villages with Buddhist setters from
    different townships and from out of the country
  4. Allow them temporary moment from village to village with Form 4 and totally ban
    them travelling to Sittwe
  5. Forbid higher studies to Rohingya
  6. No Muslim to be appointed in government services
  7. Forbid them from ownership of lands, shops and buildings. Any such properties
    under their existing ownership must be confiscated for distribution among the
    Buddhist. All economic activities must be stopped
  8. Ban construction, renovation, repair and roofing of mosques, Islamic religious
    schools and dwelling houses of the Rohingya
  9. Try secretly to convert the Muslims into Buddhism
  10. Whenever theirs is a case between Rakhine and Muslim, the court shall give verdict
    in favour of Rakhine; when the case is between Muslims themselves, the court shall
    favour the rich against the poor Muslim so the latter leaves the country with
    frustration
  11. Mass killing of the Muslim is to be avoided in order not to invite the attention of the
    Muslim countries.
  12. International State Crime Initiatives, “Countdown to Annihilation: Genocide in Myanmar”,
    2015
    SYSTEMATIC STEPS
     General Ne Win’s COUP D’ÉTAT: 1962
     Ne Win put northern Arakan under Sittwe Administration: 1964
     Rohingya Language Programme cancelled: 1965
     Arakan renamed to Rakhine State: 1974
     The 1982 Citizenship Law: 1982
     “SPDC Rohingya Extermination Plan”: 1988
     Stopped issuing Birth Certificates: 1994
     Two-Child Policy for Rohingya: 2001
     Started building Fences along the border: 2009
     Reaffirmed Policies on Rohingya by Thein Sein Government: 2011
     “Rakhine Action Plan”: 2014
     Withdrawal of “White Cards”: 2015
     Disenfranchisement of Rohingya: 2015

MAJOR MILITARY OPERATIONS
• Mayu Operation: 1952-53
• Mone Thone Operation: 1954
• Combined Immigration and Army Operation: 1955
• Union Military Police Operation: 1955-58
• Captain Htin Kyaw Operation: 1959
• Shwe Kyi Operation: 1966
• Kyi Gan Operation: 1966
• Ngazinka Operation: 1967-69
• Myat Mon Operation: 1969-71
• Major Aung Than Operation: 1973
• Sabe Operation: 1974-78
• King Dragon Operation: 1978-79
• Shwe Hintha Operation: 1978-80
• Galone Operation: 1979
• Pyi Thaya Operation: 1991-92
• Genocidal Campaign: 2012 – ongoing
• Clearance Operations: Oct. 2016 – June 2017
• Clearance Operations: Aug. 25, 2017 – Present
SINCE 1978
1.1 million Rohingya refugees in BANGLADESH
350,000 in PAKISTAN
200,000 in SAUDI ARABIA
150,000 in MALAYSIA
40,000 in INDIA
10,000 in UAE
5,000 in THAILAND
1,000 in INDONESIA
SINCE JUNE 2012
More than 120,000 Rohingya are confined in Internally Displaced Persons IDP Camps
across Rakhine State, denied of returns to their places of origin, education, healthcare,
movement, livelihood, etc.
Nearly 364,000 Rohingya civilians live in ghettos and isolated villages in Apartheid
conditions in Rakhine State.
Source: IOM, UNHCR, Al Jazeera and agencies,
September, 2017
SINCE AUGUST 2017
725,000 Rohingya became refugees in Bangladesh. Over 390 Rohingya villages and
mosques were destroyed. At least 12,000 Rohingya men, women and children were killed.
Hundreds of women were raped and gang-raped. Thousands men, youths and scholars
are indefinitely detained.
Source: UN Independent International Fact-Finding Mission
on Myanmar Report, September 2018

REPATRIATION
Myanmar signed an agreement with Bangladesh to begin the process of repatriation
without consultation with Rohingya or guarantee of safety, returns to the places origin,
citizenship and basic human rights, while Myanmar builds more concentration camps to
accept the Rohingya refugees.
RELOCATION
At the same time, Bangladesh plans to relocate over 100,000 Rohingya refugees from
Cox’s Bazar region to the flood and cyclone-prone Bhasan Char, “Floating Island” which
emerged in the Bay of
Bengal 11 years ago.
LIMBO
Rohingya population lives on in limbo while the long- awaited justice and the accountability
of genocide seem in an untouched distance.
THE RISE OF BUDDHIST NATIONALISM
Buddhist monks with the backing of the military celebrate the genocide, call for more
policies to further suppress interfaith communities and multi-culture.
WHILE OTHER SEES AS ‘THE POSTER GIRL FOR THE ARMY’
Aung San Suu Kyi, the daughter of Founding Father of Myanmar’s Multiculturalism is
proud to associate and walk with the military which brought nothing, but war, conflict,
genocide and importantly – HATRED AND INTOLERANCE.

THE UNITED NATIONS
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Article 2
GENOCIDE is defined as “… any of the following acts committed with INTENT TO
DESTROY, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as
such:
a. Killing members of the group;
b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical
destruction in whole of in part;
d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births with the group;
e. Forcibly transferring children of the group
to another group

THE BIRTH OF A GENOCIDE
“What Rohingyas are facing is a text book case of genocide in which an entire indigenous
community is being systematically wiped out by the Burmese government.”
SEVEN NOBEL PEACE LAUREATES
1) Desmond Tutu
2) Mairead Maguire
3) Jody Williams

4) Tawakkol Karma
5) Shirin Ebadi
6) Leymah Gbowee
7) Adolfo Perez Esquivel
May 28, 2015

MYANMAR
Also known as Burma, a Buddhist majority country of 54 million people Riches in diverse
cultures, religions and ethnicity Founded on the basis of Equality, Diversity, Freedom and
Tolerance.
GENERAL AUNG SAN
“The dream of a unified and free Burma has always haunted me. If we mix religion and
politics,
then we offend the spirit of religious itself.”
Source: The Architect of Independence
February 11, 1947
SUPPRESSION OF MINORITIES
The Buddhist Bamar military and politicians draw line based on ethnicity and religion
leaving minorities in extreme poverty and deprived of their rights.
CIVIL WARS AND CONFLICTS
Ethnic minorities take arms to fight for freedom, equality and federal democracy.
They feel betrayal by Bamar Ethnic Majority controlled Myanmar Military.
MULTICULTURALISM
Myanmar flourished under multiculturalism following its Independence
from the British Rule in 1948
ANTI-MULTICULTURALISM
The military regime reversed everything that the fathers of Independence strived for.
It soon controls the vast natural resources, mostly found in ethnic minorities regions.
Its suppressions of ethnic and religious minorities take roots.
THE END OF MULTICULTURALISM
The democratically elected government was short-lived after it was overthrown by General
Ne Win’s coup in March 1962
GENERAL NE WIN
“I have to inform you, citizens of the Union that Armed Forces have taken over the
responsibility and the task of keeping the country’s safety, owing to the greatly
deteriorating conditions of the union.”
The Burmese Dictator
March 2, 1962
BUDDHIST, CHRISTIAN and MUSLIM
The pre – independence cabinet was made up of diverse faiths – BUDDHIST, CHRISTIAN
and MUSLIM before all were assassinated in July 1947

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